BSC 1085 Human Anatomy and Physiology Exam 1

 

1. Which of the following body systems is made up of the heart and blood vessels

A. muscular system

B. skeletal system

C. cardiovascular system

D. integumentary system

 

2. Anterior is the same as

A. cranial

B. dorsal

C. ventral

D. superior

 

3. Which of the following correctly lists levels of organization from smallest to largest?

A. chemical level, cellular level, organ level, tissue level, organism level

B. cellular level, organ level, tissue level, organism level, chemical level

C. cellular level, chemical level, organ level, tissue level, organism level

D. chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organism level

 

4. The word “Anatomy” literally translated means______.

A. form

B. cut apart

C. natural process

D. flesh

 

5. A good hypothesis is______.

A. a random guess

B. falsifiable

C. true

D. false.

 

6. All of the following are true of experimental design except,

A. there should be sufficient sample size to prevent results be skewed by a chance event

B. the control and treatment group should be similar in every way except for the variable being tested.

C. the placebo is used to control for sample size variation

D. experimenter bias can be prevented using a double-blind study

 

7. Based on the definition of evolution discussed in class, which of the following would be an example of evolution?

A. antibiotic resistance

B. new strains of the aids virus (HIV)

C. emergence of new species

D. all of the above

 

8. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the abdominopelvic regions

A. the hypochondriac regions are lateral to the epigastric region

B. the epigastric region is superior to the umbilical region

C. the hypogastric region is medial to the inguinal regions

D. the hypochondriac regions are inferior to the lumbar regions

E. more than one of the above

 

9. Which of the following planes separates a human into left and right portions?

A. frontal

B. coronal

C. sagittal

D. more than one of the above

 

10. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the processes involved in homeostasis?

A. the involvement of oxytocin in childbirth is an example of positive feedback

B. regulatory mechanisms include a receptor, a control center and an effector

C. temperature regulation is a good example of negative feedback

D. negative feedback occurs when the initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances its effects.

E. more than one of the above

 

11. Which of the following statements is not true of surface area?

A. several small cells have a less surface area than one large cell of an equal volume

B. increasing the proportion of surface area allows for greater exchange of gases, nutrients and heat in the body

C. given two people of the same weight, the person with longer extremities and a thin body shape would have greater surface area than a person with short extremities and a round body shape

D. curling up into a ball will reduce exposed surface area of your body

E. none of the above

 

12. The scientific method includes all of the following steps except,

A.    Make an observation

B.    Form a hypothesis

C.    Test the hypothesis

D.    Repeat the experiment

E.     Accept results as absolute truth

 

13. Which of the following is not true regarding Hydrogen?

A. Hydrogen can accept two electrons to fill its outer shell

B. Hydrogen’s outer shell can hold 2 electrons

C. Hydrogen contains 1 proton and 1 electron

D. Without its electron, hydrogen is just a proton (H+)

E. more than one of the above

 

14. Which of the following is not true of the process where a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose are linked together?

A. it is a dehydration synthesis

B. it is a decomposition

C. it is anabolism

D. the products include a disaccharide and water

 

15. Which of the following statements is not true regarding an ionic bond formed between Na and Cl?

A. the two atoms form a salt

B. Na and Cl become opposite in charge

C. Na and Cl share a pair of electrons in their outer shells

D. Na atom donates an electron to the Cl

 

16. Which of the following is not true regarding covalent bonds?

A. a covalent bond between hydrogen atoms may be represented as either H-H or H2

B. a single covalent bond involves sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.

C. sharing of the electrons may be unequal resulting in polar molecules

D. covalent bonds are relatively weak bonds as compared to ionic and hydrogen bonds

 

17. Which of the following is not true of hydrogen bonds?

A. they exist because the partial positive charge of one water molecule is attracted to the partial negative charge of another water molecule

B. they give water special properties such as surface tension and adhesion

C. they exist because the electrons are shared between the H of one water molecule and the O of a different water molecule

D. they are relatively weak bonds

 

18. Complete the following reaction. Which of the following is not true?

HCl + NaOH  ®?

A.    The products are hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide

B.    Salt and water are formed from the reaction

C.    It is a neutralization reaction

D.    It is an exchange reaction

 

19. Which of the following can be formed from dehydration synthesis?

A. proteins

B. triglycerides

C. disaccharides

D. polysaccharides

E. all of the above

 

20. Look at the reaction below. Which of the following statements about the reaction is not true?

CO2 + H2O ®H2CO3 «H+ + HCO3-

A. H2CO3 is carbonic acid

B. the dissociation of H2CO3 into bicarbonate ion and proton is reversible

C. H2CO3 is an example of a strong acid

D. in the human body, if there is a low pH, the equation will NOT dissociate (move to right).

 

Matching- For questions 21-25, select from the following list and refer to the handout:

A. lipid B. amino acid C. carbohydrate D. nitrogenous base of nucleic acid

 

26. Which of the following nucleotides has the most energy stored in phosphate bonds?

A. AMP

B. ADP

C. ATP

D. all contain the same energy

27. Which of the following is not true regarding the cell membrane?

A. it consists of a phospholipid bilayer

B. it is a freely permeable membrane

C. it can merge with intracellular membranous vesicles

D. it isolates the intracellular materials from the extracellular environment

E. none of the above

 

28. Which of the following is/are found in the cell membrane?

A. transport proteins

B. phospholipids

C. structural proteins

D. receptors

E. all of the above

 

29. Proteins can have which of the following functions?

A. provide structural support for tissues

B. act as catalysts

C. act as transporters

D. act as hormones

E. all of the above

 

30. Which of the following factors contribute to diffusion rates?

A. electrical forces

B. gradient size

C. molecule size

D. temperature

E. all of the above

 

31. The net diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane that is freely permeable to water but not to solutes is called___________.

A. active transport

B. facilitated diffusion

C. osmosis

D. ionic diffusion

 

32. If a cell is placed in a solution of pure water, the solution is _______ and the movement of water will be _________.

A. hypotonic, out of the cell

B. hypertonic, out of the cell

C. hypotonic, into the cell

D. hypertonic, into the cell

 

33. refer to handout

Fatty acid 2

 

Fatty acid 3

 

Fatty acid 1

In the triglyceride shown above, the major difference between fatty acid 3 and the other two is that,

A.    fatty acid 3 is saturated

B.    fatty acids 1 and 2 are saturated

C.    fatty acid 3 is a lipid

D.    fatty acids 1 and 2 have double bonds between carbon atoms

 

34. Why do cells need to replicate their DNA?

A. so daughter cells contain the same genetic material

B. to regulate the activities within the cell

C. to synthesize protein within the cell

D. because it is secreted into the blood

 

35. Which of the following is the correct order of the cell life cycle?

A. interphase, prophase, telophase, metaphase, anaphase

B. interphase. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

C. interphase, telophase, anaphase, prophase

D. anaphase, prophase, interphase, telophase, metaphase

 

36. The process whereby mRNA is synthesized from template DNA is called,

A. transcription

B. translation

C. transversion

D. transmutation

 

37. Which of the following is the most plausible order in which organelles would be encountered by a newly-synthesized protein.

A. ribosome, golgi, secretory vesicle, ER, transport vesicle

B. ER, ribosome, golgi, transport vesicle, secretory vesicle

C. ribosome, ER, transport vesicle, golgi, secretory veiscle

D. golgi, ER, ribosome, secretory vesicle, transport vesicle

 

38. Which of the following is not a type of RNA?

A. mRNA

B. rRNA

C. tRNA

D. qRNA

 

39. Most human somatic cells have ____pairs of chromosomes.

A. 20

B. 23

C. 40

D. 46

 

40. Given the triplet ATG on the coding strand of DNA, the corresponding triplet in mRNA would be,

A. TAC

B. ATG

C. AUG

D. UAC

 

41. Which of the following is/are not true of mitochondria?

A. they contain DNA similar to that of bacteria

B. they are important in the synthesis of ATP

C. they carry out anaerobic respiration

D. they are membranous organelles

E. All of the above

 

42. What do the golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysomes, and peroxisomes have in common?

A. they all contain ribosomes

B. they are all membranous organelles

C. they all synthesize proteins

D. they have nothing in common

 

43. ATP is use to pump sodium outside of the cell creating a concentration gradient for sodium. Sodium ions may flow down their gradient into the cell. If the sodium binds to a membrane carrier protein which then allows a glucose molecule across, this is an example of,

A. active transport

B. passive diffusion

C. secondary active transport

D. facilitated transport

 

44. Most of the ATP used to power cellular operations is produced in the,

A. ribosomes

B. endoplasmic reticulum

C. mitochondria

D. golgi apparatus

 

45. When activated, lysosomes function in,

A, formation of new cell membrane

B. synthesis of protein

C. digestion of foreign material

D. synthesis of lipids

 

46. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the conversion of ATP to ADP?

A. it would occur in active transport

B. energy is provided by this reaction

C. ATP is phosphorylated in this reaction

D. none of the above

 

47. Which of the following is not true regarding the cell membrane?

A. it consists of a phospholipid bilayer

B. it is a semi- permeable membrane

C. it can merge with intracellular membranous vesicles

D. it isolates the cytoplasm from the surrounding environment

E. none of the above

 

48. Which of the following is not found in the cell membrane?

A. transport proteins

B. phospholipids

C. mitochondria

D. receptors

E. more than one of the above

 

49. If a cell is placed in a solution with a concentration of solute greater than that of the cell, the solution is _______ and the movement of water will be _________.

A. hypotonic, out of the cell

B. hypertonic, out of the cell

C. hypotonic, into the cell

D. hypertonic, into the cell

 

50. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the genetic code?

A. a sequence of three nitrogenous bases specifies the identity of a specific amino acid

B. the number of amino acids encoded by a single gene is the same for all genes

C. the genetic code is first translated, and then transcribed

D. genes code for the construction of protein

E. more than one of the above

 

Matching

  1. stratum corneum
  2. stratum lucidum
  3. stratum germinitivum
  4. stratum granulosum
  5. stratum spinosum

 

51. The layer of the epidermis that is dominated by dividing basal cells

52. The layer of the epidermis that contains melanocytes

53. The layer of the epidermis that contains Langerhans cells

54. The layer of  skin containing mostly dead cells filled with keratin

 

55. Which of the following is not true regarding merocrine sweat glands?

  1. they help to cool the surface of the skin
  2. they are often found in hair follicles
  3. provide protection from environmental hazards
  4. palms and soles contain the highest numbers of these glands

E. All of the above are true

 

56. Projections that extend superficially between the epidermal ridges are called

  1. corns
  2. bunions
  3. dermal papillae
  4. epidermal ampullae
  5. none of the above

 

57. Which of the following is not true of carotene?

  1. it is a durable protein used for support
  2. it is an orange yellow pigment
  3. it is found in carrots and squash
  4. it can be converted to vitamin A
  5. all of the above are not true

 

58. . Which of the following is not true regarding melanin?

  1. the intensity of melanin secretion varies among humans
  2. it protects your skin from the harmful effects of sunlight.
  3. it is produced from the  amino acid tyrosine using the enzyme tyrosinase
  4. melanocytes are the dominant cell type of the stratum corneum in dark-skinned humans
  5. all of the above are true

 

59. Which of the following is not true of UV radiation?

  1. it can cause damage to the skin
  2. it can stimulate melanocyte activity
  3. it can stimulate the epidermis to synthesize vitamin D3 from steroids
  4. it is present in sunlight
  5. all of the above are true

 

60.  Which of the following is not something that hair, nails, and the stratum corneum have in common?

  1. they are all horny
  2. they are all of epidermal origin
  3. they all contain the protein keratin
  4. all of the above are shared characteristics