Below are practice questions for EXAM 3. Answers are at the end of the questions.
Exam 3 Chapter 7 - Deviance - Review
Please choose the one BEST answer.
1. A person who violates or opposes a society's most valued norms is termed:
a. a deviant
b. mentally ill
c. a criminal
2. The ways in which a society prevents deviance and punishes deviants are known as:
a. normative systems
b. social control
c. law enforcement agencies
d. moral entrepreneurs
3. Capital punishment is an example of a:
a. weak positive sanction
b. weak negative sanction
c. strong positive sanction
d. strong negative sanction
4. As a child Peter suffered from chicken pox, and as a result his face is badly scarred. When he was growing up, other children made fun of him; and as an adult he avoids other people because he thinks they are either laughing at him or pitying him. According to Erving Goffman, Peter is suffering from:
a. an identity crisis
b. a discredited identity
d. low self-esteem
5. Susan K. is a professional gambler. She is quite successful at what she does and has managed to save over $250,000. In Merton's typology Susan would be classified as:
a. a conformist
b. an innovator
c. a ritualist
d. a rebel
6. Marxists argue that definitions of what is criminal and who should be punished are generally applied:
a. fairly equally to all members of society
b. more forcefully to the poor and the working class
c. to those who commit crimes against property rather than against the state
d. most often to people who commit political crimes against the state
7. The theory that explains deviance as a learned behavior that is determined by the extent of a person's interaction with individuals who already practice such behavior is called:
a. culture-conflict theory
b. labeling theory
d. differential association
8. The process that produces deviance by means of categorizing offenders as deviant individuals is:
a. differential association
b. culture conflict
9. Deviant behavior that is engaged in as a result of having been labeled deviant is referred to as:
a. primary deviance
b. secondary deviance
c. real deviance
d. derived deviance
10. A major reason for the reduction in the crime rate in recent years has been:
a. increased spending on law enforcement
b. increased job opportunities
c. increased levels of education
d. a decrease in the number of males in the young-adult age bracket
Exam 3 - Chapter 13 Review - Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
Please select the one BEST answer:
1. Which of the following statements about race is NOT true?
a. It is a social concept that varies from one society to another.
b. People share a single human nature with relatively minor changes from one generation to the next.
c. The definitions of race used in different societies have emerged from the interaction of populations over long periods.
d. There are clear-cut groups that can be categorized into races on the basis of biological criteria.
2. The idea that many minority groups, especially racial minorities, are essentially colonial peoples within a larger society is called:
a. de jure segregation
b. intergroup deliniation
c. internal colonialism
d. social ecology
3. A population that, because if its members' physical or cultural characteristics, is singled out from others in the society for differential and unequal treatment is:
a. a minority group
b. an ethnic group
c. an excluded group
d. a racial group
4. Which of the following is the most severe form of intolerance that one group can exhibit with respect to another?
5. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court held that:
a. an employer could not set educational requirements for a job that were not relevant to that job.
b. requiring people to pay a poll tax in order to vote was unconstitutional
c. separate facilities for different races were legal as long as they were of equal quality
d. the forced relocation of an entire ethnic group without a hearing or formal charges was unconstitutional
6. Which of the following has been used as an indicator of the degree of assimilation in a society?
a. the number of minority group members attending elite colleges
b. the number on minority group members holding political office
c. the rate at which minority group members are accepted into private clubs
d. the rate of racial intermarriage in a society.
7. Discrimination is to prejudice as behavior is to:
8. Archie Bunker claims that he does not like blacks or Hispanics, but when he is presented with an opportunity to discriminate against them he does not do so. In Robert Merton's typology of prejudice and discrimination, Bunker would be classified as a:
a. cautious bigot
b. strong liberal
c. true bigot
d. weak liberal
9. If a requirement that members of the police department have a B.A. degree results in excluding blacks and other minorities because only one-third of them graduate from high school, it can be concluded that the community practices:
a. affirmative action
b. cautious bigotry
c. institutional discrimination
d. internal colonialism
10. As a child Arthur Chesboro was frequently punished by his parents, and as a adult he does not like Jews or blacks. He blames his inability to get ahead on competition by minority groups, and although he does not like his boss, he always does what he is told. Chesboro's personality could best be described as:
Exam 3 - Chapter 14 Review - Inequalities of Gender
Please select the one BEST answer:
1. The term referring to the biological differences between males and females is:
2. Maria used a four-letter word and her mother admonished her, "Nice girls don't talk like that!" In this instance Maria's mother is engaging in:
a. developmental socialization
b. gender socialization
d. secondary socialization
3. In her study of gender roles in new Guinea, Margaret Mead concluded that differences between the roles of men and women:
a. should be encouraged at all costs
b. were a natural outgrowth of biological and psychological differences
c. were a result of learning and cultural factors
d. were functionally necessary for the society
4. In preindustrial societies, which of the following plays the greatest role in social stratification?
a. age and gender
b. social class
5. It has been argued that the norms of chivalry and courtly love served the function of:
a. continuing the repression of women
b. giving women greater social power
c. increasing the status of women
d. increasing women's opportunities for upward mobility
6. Which of the following is NOT a consequence of sex-segregated play groups?
a. As adults, men tend to be more interested in roles that involve human relationships.
b. As adults, women are more likely to be socialized into the "feminine" roles of mother, teacher, and secretary.
c. Boys play at team sports more than girls do.
d. Girls spend more time playing at domestic roles than boys do.
7.An ideology that justifies prejudice or discrimination based on gender is referred to as:
8. Jo Freeman suggests that the resurgence of the women's movement in the 1960s and 1970s was a result of:
a. efforts by women's organizations to make women aware of inequality based on gender
b. granting women the right to vote
c. increasing numbers of women holding political office
d. the increasing divorce rate
9. The persistent dominance of men over women is called:
10. The development of homophobia is different for boys than it is for girls. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. Homophia among females often occurs during early childhood.
b. Homophia among boys occurs in the teenage years.
c. Homophia among males can be seen by the time they are toddlers.
d. Homophia among females occurs during the teenage years.
Exam 3 - Chapter 16 Review - Family
Please select the one BEST answer:
1. The network of role relations among people who consider themselves to be related by blood, marriage, or adoption is referred to as:
2. The nuclear family in which one is born and socialized is one's family of:
3. Which of the following is illustrated by William Goode's observation that the "the untalented, homely, poor man may aspire to a bride with highly desirable qualities, but he cannot offer enough to induce either her or her family to choose him, for they can find a groom with more highly valued qualities"?
a. emotional reciprocity as a key to marital partner selection
b. marriage as a bargain or exchange
c. the complementary needs dynamic in marital partner selection
d. the importance of romantic love as a factor in marital partner selection
4. Mark and Katherine are very much in love and plan to marry. He is the son of devout Presbyterians; Katherine is the daughter of practicing Catholics. In sociological terms, their marriage would be:
5. In his analysis of patterns of dating August Hollingshead discovered that:
a. dating patterns were unrelated to social class
b. most adolescents conformed to the norm of homogamy
c. most adolescents dated people from different religious backgrounds
d. there was considerable interracial dating
6. Which of the following theories argues that people who fall in love tend to be alike in social characteristics like family prestige?
a. complementary needs
b. emotional reciprocity
c. mutual attraction
d. social determinism
7. Which of the following is NOT an element of Peter Blau's theory of attraction and emotional reciprocity?
a. Attraction is governed by the norms of exchange
b. Inequalities in love can lead to separation.
c. People with opposite temperaments are attracted to each other.
d. We tend to love someone who loves us.
8. Which of the following statements about cohabitation is TRUE?
a. Couples who cohabit before marriage are somewhat less willing to accept divorce as a solution to marital problems.
b. Marital stability is greater in those marriages where the couple lived together before marriage.
c. The divorce rate among couples who cohabited before marriage is about the same as for noncohabitors.
d. The divorce rate among couples who cohabited before marriage is greater than that of noncohabitors.
9. In examining households by type from 1970 - 2000, which of the following showed the largest increase?
a. married couples with their own children
b. married couples without their own children
c. women living alone
d. men living alone
10. A major study on divorce indicates that:
a. the emotional stress of divorce for children dissipates within a year
b. the lack of conflict between the now divorced parents enhances their relationships with the children
c. the negative effects of divorce may still be present a decade later for children.
d. within 18 months most divorced adults have remarried